Posted on Leave a comment

How to write the Introduction of a Thesis /Article

Introduction of a thesis article
Introduction of a thesis article
Image by Free-Photos from Pixabay

The introduction of a Thesis /Article should contain a concise explanation of the research problem undertaken for study, the importance and frequency of the disease/problem, how it affects morbidity/mortality rates and other health effects among the general population.

It should also include the epidemiological importance of the disease/problem.

The Introduction should answer the questions:

What am I studying?

Moreover, Why is it an important question?

Also, what do I know about it before I do this study?

Finally, how will this study help us advance the knowledge?

Organize the information so as to present more general aspects of the title early in the introduction, then the narrow toward more specific current information that provides the context, finally arriving at the statement of rationale and purpose.

Introduction of a Thesis /Article can be divided into segments as follows:

1.  Current Knowledge about the topic

This part includes the current scenario of your thesis topic to be written in present tense.

For example the current knowledge on malaria could be written as:

2.      Gap in knowledge related to the topic

The knowledge gap is that which needs to be filled by new research either because we know little or nothing.

In also includes the conflicting thoughts or the controversies in the previous research or studies performed in the past.

For Example :

3.  Necessity or need for the study

You should justify the reason for choosing the topic . Later can be done providing information pertaining to the prevalence of the disease/problem based on published records . Moreover, you should draw conclusions for proper management of diagnosis of disease. Finally, the section should also discuss the proposed outcome of the study.

1.      Hypothesis

Be sure to state clearly the purpose and/or hypothesis that one will investigate.Moreover, it is most customary to place the purpose of statement or hypothesis near the end of introduction, often as topic sentence of the final paragraph.

For Example:

Are you struck ?

We at assist in designing the correct research methodology for different research projects and MD/MS/DNB thesis.

Certainly , fell free to call us  at +9151368005 or email at or submit your details here.

Posted on Leave a comment

How to write a Thesis protocol ?

What is a thesis protocol?
Image by Pexels from Pixabay

The first step towards acquiring a post graduate thesis is the writing of a Thesis protocol and the presentation of the same to the research/thesis committee for a critical appraisal. The protocol needs to be corrected according to the suggestions given by the committee. Finally, it needs to be approved by the University. The thesis protocol is then considered an official document and the thesis work needs to conform to the same.

Components of thesis protocol

A. Title Page

Title of thesis

Title should be informative and relevant. It should preferably one sentence/phrase typed in sentence case. Abbreviations should not be used

What are the types of titles?

1.      Indicative

2.      Informative

3.      Question type

4.      Main or subtitle type

Title page of Thesis protocol contains the following:

Firstly, Name of the University

Secondly, Degree (with discipline) for which the thesis is being submitted

Thirdly, Years of the batch under the name of candidate

Also, Name and Signature of Candidate

Finally Name and Signature(s) of Supervisor and Co-supervisor(s)


One should put a page of thanks to those who have helped them in scientific matters and also indirectly by providing such essentials as food, education, genes, money, help, advice, friendship, etc.

Moreover, If any of your work is collaborative, you should make it quite clear who did which sections.

The thesis protocol should be arranged as:

 1. Introduction

 2. Review of literature

 3. Aims and Objectives

 4. Material & Methods

 5. Statistical Analysis

 6. Ethical Consideration

 7. Consent

 8. Information to patients

 9. References

 10. Annexures

 11. Proforma


(1-2 pages)

Describe the problem under the consideration (disease or condition) briefly.

Discuss about What is known? & what are gaps?

Summaries briefly the review of literature

Write about research question and its significance

How would answering the research question amend the current knowledge of state?

Conclude introduction section by stating how proposal plans to answer the questions that should be focused, achievable, relevant, and measurable, clear and precise and also justify need for the study (no studies to date have reported outcomes, we examined or evaluation of the results of program was necessary to develop future programs).

The Introduction should answer the questions:

·         What am I studying?

·         Why is it an important question?

·         What do I know about it before I do this study?

·         How will this study help us advance the knowledge?

The structure of introduction section may be thought of as triangle which is inverted (up-side down) –

the broadest part which is on the top representing most general information & focusing down to specific problem one will study. Moreover, Organize the information so as to present more general aspects of the title early in introduction, then the narrow toward more specific current information that provides the context,

finally arriving at the statement of rationale and purpose.Also, Be sure to state clearly the purpose and/or hypothesis that one will investigate.

Finally, It is most customary to place the purpose of statement or hypothesis near the end of introduction, often as topic sentence of final paragraph.

Research Question

1.      Most preferably in question format and not the statement

2.      Focused, precise, and clear

3.      S.M.A.R.T.- Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time format

Review of Literature (ROL)

(3-5 pages)

What is the present knowledge about subject of the study? How the difficulty has been approached by the others and what are the observations? Does the reported studies conflicting? What are the unfilled spaces in the existing knowledge?

1.      Summarize the information about the level of problem under the consideration (disease or condition)

2.      Discuss the related pathology or pathophysiology (do not include the textbook material–very understandable facts)

3.      Review the available studies on the subject or intervention related to the research question. It is nice to provide the summary table of relevant studies where ever necessary

4.      Write the summary of review- What is already known about the subject?

5.      Identify relevant gaps in knowledge

6.       This should ease writing a paragraph on “basis for the study” that should be concluding section of review of literature.

Aims and Objectives:

 Aims refer to what is to be achieved by present study or how the present study would address bigger question or issue

Objectives refer to what would you actually do in the present study.

·         Primary objective refers to the main research question (the primary outcome) and is the base for sample size.

·         Secondary objective refers to the additional questions that are typically for ‘generation of the hypotheses’.

Material and Methods section

  When (….. to …..) and where the study would be carried out.

    Type of study- Prospective/Retrospective

Descriptive or analytical; If analytical, whether observational (cohort, case-control or cross-sectional) or interventional (RCT, cross-over)

Targeted population (Define the subjects of the study)

How would be the subjects chosen; age group, sex– Why being specific?

Any control group (If yes then define)

Sample size: basis of the number of cases

Place where the subjects would be recruited from

The inclusion criteria-Define ages, the criteria for defining the disease condition or normalcyThe exclusion criteria-Subjects who other-wise were eligible for inclusion but are excluded because of the possibility of introducing biasness

Method of Randomization- How the Randomization is done? How the allocation cover up or/and blinding is performed?

Procedure or Intervention

·         Detail if using the new method or quote the standard reference if anyone else has described the method already that you are going to use in your study.

·         Be certain to describe any alterations made of the standard or the published method.

·         Quantitative aspects: masses, incubation times, volumes, concentrations, the machine specifications (include the manufacturer’s name & address)

·         Duration and frequency of intervention

·         Procedures and the schedules of examination or investigations or treatment, and the observation of the outcome measures

  Dosage, schedules, formulations, duration of the drug treatments, if any

Outcome measures (like the union of fracture, birth weight, hemoglobin, etc.)

Follow up of the study participant, if applicable.

If there are multiple measurements, it is great to provide the table with the measurements. Aldo, add the time and tools used for the assessment and procedure for recording or controlling the confounding variable, if any should be mentioned. Standardization of the method and the reference to methodology must be given wherever required.

Statistical analysis:

One should mention the procedure for data entry, statistical methods or software for the statistical analysis, methods for handing the missing data etc.

Level of significance or the level of confidence should also be defined. “A p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant”, since the choice of this cutoff point is arbitrary.

Ethical consideration and the informed consent:

When reporting the experiments on the human subjects, it should be shown whether procedures followed were in agreement with ethical standards on the human experimentation (as per guidelines decided by Central Ethical Committee of the ICMR).


Use Vancouver styling and include the reference that the candidate has accessed and read. Number of references should be limited to 15-20.

Annexures: questionnaires/measurement tools etc.

Patient information sheet & consent form: Both in local and English languages


 I certify that facilities for working on the thesis entitled “xxxxxx” do exist in the department, hospital, laboratory under my/our charge and these shall be provided to candidate for his/her research work in pursuance of his/her plan of thesis. I/We shall guide the candidate in his/her work and shall ensure that the data being included in the thesis are genuine and that the work is being done by the candidate himself.

 (Signature of Supervisor)                           (Signature of Co-supervisor)

   Name and Designation                         Name and Designation

(Signature of Co-supervisor)                                                                                     Name and Designation

Posted on Leave a comment

Thesis topic :why does the it matters ?


Selecting the correct thesis topic for your medical thesis may be intimidating and offerings the major difficulty in your post-graduation. Though certain topics would be recommended by your supervisor based on his thoughtfulness, knowledge, and conveniences accessible in the Department, you perform a significant role in selecting your own and comprising your thesis subsequently.

what is a thesis?

A medical thesis is the written work resulting from an inventive exploration in the field of medical sciences. Meanwhile , it is submitted by the students in instruction to get a higher degree from the University.

However, keeping this in mind; the purpose of submitting a medical thesis is not restricted to the accomplishment of a doctoral or post-graduate degree.  In addition , it is a way to consolidate the scientific information in a way to make additional evolution in this field.

why selecting a correct thesis topic matters ?

That’s the reason why the professionals in medical thesis writing strain on the significance of selecting the accurate title for the thesis. Your necessity be able to tell an honest problematic or succession of difficulties through your medical thesis.

Select a topic that makes straight with your interest and where you can offer a new viewpoint that completes your investigation study.

How to do it right ?

The task will become at ease if you are talented to answer the following questions:

Is this selected topic suitable to the circumstances of your place of work?

Will this topic appeal to your interest?

Is this selected topic express about the topic with interest and vision?

Will it be able to offer a new viewpoint on the topic dissimilar from what people previously know about it?

How should you go about selecting the right thesis topic ?

 Make a list of potential topics and constrict it down by asking yourself:

What do the other professionals know about the topic?

What features are of greatest significance in the topic?

How one can proficiently explored and report the outcomes of the study within an assumed time interval?

writing the answers to these questions on a sheet of paper will help in selecting the right topic for your research, push the investigation in an accurate way, and finally help in your medical thesis writing on time.

Further, you should note specific main terms, embracing those naming constituents of the thesis topics and those provided that instructions dealing with it.

Finally, It is suggested to pursue particularly for words significantly the kind of thought one wants to use: why, how, compare, analyze, assess, argue, etc. make sure that you increase in value and implications of such terms.

Focus on Hypothesis

A hypothesis is situated within some questions or exact matters. To definitely find out and ratify the first choice for a thesis subject may need a long time.Moreover, It depends on the students. But they have to respect the intelligence of guides/advisors.

Further, the preliminary steps in the direction of selecting a thesis topic are to travel around the common potential thesis topics and select among them the best one.

While seeing the sights thesis topics, it is suggested quiet down; then you should begin thinking about possible thesis topics. You will wish to contract down your list of conceivable thoughts as much as possible.

And finally

The aims of the thesis:

1) To raise the question to be investigated and explain its significance.

2) To collect current knowledge and deliberate the determinations of other investigators who have worked on the associated problems.

3) To articulate a hypothesis and purposes.

4) To explain ethical thoughts.

5) To recommend the procedure mandatory for resolving the question and accomplishing the purposes.

6) To discuss the necessities and restrictions in completing the purposes.

Are you struck ?

We at assist in designing the correct research methodology for different research projects and MD/MS/DNB thesis.

Certainly , fell free to call us  at +9151368005 or email at or submit your details here.

Posted on Leave a comment

How to select thesis topic in MD/MS and DNB courses?



Have patience. All things are difficult before they become easy.

-Saadi Shirazi

Selecting  thesis topic in MD/MS and DNB courses , is more of an at than science. Regular practice and patience are key to success. However,  there are few tips that can make the process easier.

Research focus of thesis topic in MD/MS and DNB courses

Who should decide the thesis topic for MD/MS/DNB thesis ? You, a  PG student or  the guide.

Imagine you are an upcoming wildlife photographer. You are hired by National Geographic to make a photo journal on blue tailed monkey ( fictitious ) in the Amazon rain forest.
You are going into the jungle to do that.
Who would you like to decide the track you are going to follow? You or a local guide which is the son of the soil?

I do not know about you, but I will ask the local guide to decide where to go. I would love to get great photos of that monkey, but I would hate to even think of the idea of getting lost in the jungle.

The thesis is a task with similar complexity and challenge.
The most challenging task is to select a topic for the thesis.
The area of expertise of your thesis guide is the best field you should focus your thesis.

A new doctor usually does not have a clear research focus as it demands in-depth subjects knowledge to develops correct research questions.

Your thesis guide usually has adequate experience. So concentrate on the following points

Field of work of thesis guide: The outcome of a well-executive research project provided answers to a particular research question. Besides, it increases the understanding of that specific topic, which in turn help in raising many other research questions, which finally becomes bases for further research.

For example,
A cross-sectional study designed to identify risk factors for a disease x in a population. The outcome of the study is the identification of A, B, and C as risk factors for the disease X. It also gives rise to a question as to what extent the presence of the risk factor A in the population increases the odds of having the disease X. , a second study (case-control) is required to answer this question.

The previous experience with the research in the same or similar topic also gives one the idea of the difficulty faced in the study planning and execution.

You can get an idea of the field of your guides interest by looking at his/her previous publication or thesis will provide you with an excellent sense of the focus and direction of the research interest. It is better to find some topic in alignment with the guides research focus and direction.

Time frame for completion of thesis topic

Do not bite more than you can chew.

The average time allotted for completion of the MD/MS/DNB thesis is two years. It may further be reduced due to administrative delays like allotment of thesis Guides and selection of topic. At some institutions, it is only one year.

It is safe to presume that it takes around one month to finalize and submit the protocol and two months to write, print, and submit the complete thesis.

The remaining time, nine months or one year and nine months ( depending on, whether you have one or two years) are all you have for actual data collection.

You should keep in mind, the pattern of patients inflow at your institution to be able to recruit enough patients ( sample size) for your study, within this time frame.

You should only select a topic in which this is possible.

Technology and logistics available

A bird in hand is worth two in  the bush.

There is always a temptation to select a research topic based on some new technology, diagnostic modality, or treatment technique. It is better if that new technology or equipment is available in-house, in your department.

Negotiating with other department/institution to regularly avail their facilities is often challenging. It is because of the difference in timing, priorities, work culture, and administrative barriers.

One way to deal with it is to have a co-guide from that facility/institution.

You should diligently do your homework on this point before you take any research topic. It is practically impossible to change a co-guide or a lab facility, once the topic is finalized and protocol is submitted.

Statistical and Research Methodology Support to complete the thesis topic.

Imaging you are gifted a do-it-yourself kit to build a robot which can dance. It is meant for an age group of 10 yrs or more, and should take one hours to assemble. It has all the wheels , gears, levers, motors, wires and motherboard , required to assemble it into a functioning robot.

How long will it take to assemble? 45 minutes !

Now imaging the box has everything , accept the manual to assemble it. 

Now, how long will it take to assemble ?  Good luck.

You should better be Einstein to do it at all.

Writing a thesis in MD/MS and DNB courses, without having a correct research methodology planning, in practically impossible. Most of the thesis rejected are primarily due to flaws in the research methodologies only. 

We at assist in designing the correct research methodology for different research projects and MD/MS/DNB thesis. Fell free to call us  at +9151368005  or email at or submit your details here.

Posted on Leave a comment

How to find a right research question for your thesis topic?

The fact often ignored while selecting a thesis topic is the research question underlying it. Probably the main reason why it is neglected happens to be the fact that it is vague and not adequately explained.

So the million dollar question is, “what is the  research question and from  where should you get it ?”

It is a clear, concise, explicit and arguable question around which is based on your thesis. It will help you focus your argument precisely on one issue and keep it on the right track. And finally, when you will be writing a paper for publication, the same question will make the main argument.

The next important question is as to how should one find the right research question.

The first step is to find the issue/topic which is of your interest. The research work is arduous and tedious. It is practically impossible to give your best if you do not like the issue in the first hand.

The second step is the explore more about that topic, about what others have done on this issue, to date. Google, Google, and Pubmed are the best places to search.

Step three is to start listing question that you feel are important and need an answer.

Finally step four is to refine your question. Avoid question which has yes or no or straightforward answer. Why question is often complicated and arguable are preferred, but we should see if it is feasible for us to research that question in our setting and resources. A better question is those who have many answers. Also, these question will require you to explain or defend your answers.

Let us know the issue you are facing in finding your thesis topic. We can ensure you that you are not the only one facing it.

Posted on Leave a comment

Post graduate training in medical colleges in India.

Few of the bright students join MBBS courses in India, and  among them, a chosen few , which are unarguably the brightest, finally join the post graduation courses. Do the medical colleges that we have , really have the resources and the capabilities to train this talented pool of graduate doctors into the specialists of this century. In most institution, the clinical training is not bad  because of large number and great variety of patients available, but same can not be said about the medical research. An excellent article by MS Tullu and S Karande titled “Quality research in Indian medical colleges and teaching institutions: The need of the hour” throws light on this issue. Author succinctly points reasons why we should engage in research, and also elaborate that  we have adequate resources at our disposal that it can surely be done here in India only.

Posted on Leave a comment

Thesis writng


The present status of thesis writing can not be better depicted than as done in a

beautiful article written by  Dr. Dhiraj Sonawane, titled “Phobia about Thesis in Medical Postgraduate student”, in Journal of medical thesis, 2014.

The article not only elaborates the reasons why students avoid participation in thesis writing but also suggests the ways with which the quality of post graduate thesis can be improved.  Its an article which should be read by both the students and the guide.